Today, in Paris, starts the 21th UN Climate Conference (COP21), the international conference for climate. Terrific safety conditions after the attacks that killed 130 people just a couple of weeks ago. For the next two weeks (until 11 December), the entire area of the Bourget where takes place the conference will be controlled by 2,800 agents (other 6,300 will be deployed around Paris).
Leaders coming from 150 countries will try and reach an agreement to reduce global warming and avoid irreversible consequences.
“I count on you to negotiate and build compromises since the next few hours,” said the French Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius, starting works of the Conference as president. And, referring to other climate conferences (such as the Kyoto and Copenhagen, six years ago), he said: “If we want to rely on a pseudo-miracle last night, I’m afraid that is not a good solution.”
After years of discussion and debate, it seems that the scientific community is unanimous about the state of criticality. The latest data on average annual temperatures are worrying: 2015 will be the warmest year of the Earth since when, in 1880, began the instrument readings. The global average temperature growth of the surface is 1.04 ° C, as confirmed by NASA data. As a matter “almost eerie, a significant jump for models of climate change,” said Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, a climate of CBE Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, who added: “If the trend is not changed, there will be increased temperature by the end of the century more than 5 degrees.”
Anthropogenic warming, added to natural climate variability, will cause terrible changes in the territory.
The goal of the summit is to define actions to be taken to stop, or at least limit, this phenomenon in the coming decades. Therefore, in view of the conference, 183 countries out of 195 (although with considerable delay) presented their promises and proposals to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
“Commitments” proposed, however, according to experts, would not avoid the increase in average temperatures of less than 3 degrees. Results will request to re-evaluate its proposals. Beginning in countries that are the biggest polluters, such as most industrialized countries (United States, Europe and Japan) and many of the developing world (China and India).
Promises that most of these countries are not ready to make. USA “are opposed to a binding agreement” (for internal reasons) and “have not presented an alternative approach,” said the European Commissioner for Climate, Miguel Arias Canete, recalling that Paris, unlike Kyoto, “must be a universal agreement, so we want the US to be part of it. “
And position of the most European countries would be “still far” from what is necessary to reach an effective global agreement, as confirmed Jiri Jerabek Greenpeace. His opinion is shared by other organizations such as the Climate Action Network Europe (CAN) and WWF. According to Jerabek “Europe can do more to accelerate the transition towards an energy system based on renewables and commit to eliminate fossil fuels at home.”
The risk is that, as happened after Kyoto conference, Paris will become another opportunity to make promises not to be maintained or to allow industrialized countries to continue to pollute using “compensation” (a country can go over the limits promised as long as other countries sign a deal to stay below these limits). Wendel Trio, director of Can, said that “the negotiating position includes’ dark areas’ ‘.
Many countries in the developing world, from the Pacific Islands to the African Group, reiterated that they “want a binding agreement” and therefore “those who do not accept it must submit a proposal for negotiation” as confirmed Canete.